(1) The decennial Census, which was last conducted in 2011.
(2) The Annual Population Survey (APS), which looks at the population of people living in the UK each year.
(3) The International Passenger Survey (IPS), which measures flows of people in and out of the country.
(4) Administrative data from a wide range of government bodies, such as the Department of Work and Pensions, the Home Office, the Department for Education and the NHS. Several of these sources are brought together in ONS’ Local Area Migration Indicators Suite, which is updated in August every year. The National Records of Scotland (NRS) presents Scotland-specific data in their Local Area Migration publication and in an interactive visualisation.
Learn more about these data sources, their strengths and their limitations in this section.