2.1. How do migrants fare in the local labour market?
Between Census years, up-to-date information on the labour-market outcomes of migrants at the local authority level is relatively limited. For many local authorities, NOMIS provides data on the employment rate, unemployment rate and economic inactivity rate for working-age non-UK born people, broken down by white and non-white ethnicity (select ‘Country of birth’ from the ‘Category’ filter). The available data are estimates based on the APS and also come with confidence intervals.
Figure 13 provides estimates of the employment rates for foreign-born individuals in 2019. Some areas do not have an estimate because the sample size size for foreign-born people with white or non-white ethnicity (or both) is too small.
Another source of data on local labour market activity and related information is the 2011 Census. Labour market conditions have changed considerably since 2011 and so indicators like employment rates are likely to have changed too. However, there are some circumstances in which census data may still be helpful – in examining differences in outcomes between migrants from different countries of origin, for example. Users should bear in mind that the gaps between different groups do not necessarily remain constant over time and are affected by factors such as the duration of residence in the country.
Census data allow detailed breakdowns of outcomes of different groups by local authority. For example, relevant Census tables for England and Wales include:
Counts of the non-UK born by economic activity, including employees vs. self-employed (both full-time vs. part time), students, and long-term vs. short-term unemployed: Table LC6203EW and Table DC6210EW (the latter has a more detailed country of birth variable).
The same factors, with additional breakdowns by age and sex: Table DC6203EW.
Table DC6218EW: counts of the non-UK born by ‘social grade’ approximated based on occupation of employment.
NHS Digital produces figures on the proportion of GPs in England, by Clinical Commissioning Group, whose primary medical qualification was acquired outside of the UK. These data can be accessed and are visualised in the ONS publication International migration and the healthcare workforce (see Figure 9).